As the effects of climate change become more and more evident, European countries have begun designing national strategies and implementing their respective national adaptation plans, with priority in the sectors of health, agriculture, water resources and sea level rise. As experience of the potential for adaptation to climate change grows, the difficulties of institutionalizing climate change adaptation are recognized.
European Water Policy has undergone a thorough restructuring process, and the Water Framework Directive adopted in 2000 serves as the operational tool, setting the objectives for water protection for the future.
Wastewater treatment projects are always challenging, but when upgrading of existing works is involved the challenge increases.
Gaseous emissions are emitted from various stages of treatment in a WWTP. Currently, in developed countries the energy required for wastewater treatment accounts for approximately 3% of the total electrical load.